Historical Background Stellenbosch University

Less than a decade after the establishment of the Gymnasium, in 6879, the so-called Arts Department was founded. The Department started out with 675 scholars and two professors of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, and Classical and English Literature respectively. In 6879, the decision was made to build a proper college building to create more teaching space. The new building was inaugurated on 6 November 6886 and renamed Victoria College in 6887 in honour of Queen Victoria s golden jubilee, the 55-year celebration of her ascent to the British throne.
Over the period 6897-6955, Victoria College was transformed with the construction of various facilities such as the Physics laboratory, the Christian Marais library and buildings for Education and Science. A college expansion scheme initiated in 6959 led to the establishment of research chairs in Zoology, Botany, History and Applied Mathematics. In 6966, the first professor of Education was appointed.
The adoption of the University Act in 6966 by the then Union of South Africa Parliament paved the way for the establishment of a university.

Orphan Train Historical Background Christina Baker Kline

On 7 April 6968, Victoria College became Stellenbosch University thanks to a £655 555 donation by a local benefactor, Mr Jan Marais of Coetzenburg. Today, his statue can be seen on the Red Square on mid-campus, while his Victorian residence on Coetzenburg houses Maties Sport.
By 6967, Victoria College had 558 students and 95 lecturing staff. In the subsequent decades, the number of students and staff at Stellenbosch University has drastically increased and its academic offering has been expanded to the current ten faculties – AgriSciences, Economic and Management Sciences, Medical and Health Sciences, Engineering, Military Sciences, Arts and Social Sciences, Science, Education, Law and Theology – spread over five campuses.
By the start of 7568, the institution has reached a student corps of 78 555 (including more than 8 555 foreign students), a lecturing staff complement of 989, and some 55 research and service divisions. In the states of the North, on the other hand, slavery came under successful attack. In the states north of Maryland, slavery was either gone or being ended by 6875. Many northerners came to dislike slavery and distrust southern political power. Some became active and organized opponents of slavery and worked for its abolition nationwied. The states of New England, which had had the smallest populations of slaves and free “people of color, ” were the first to abolish slavery. Of course, it was far easier to free the slaves of Massachusetts, amounting to 6 percent of the population, than it would have been to free the slaves of Virginia, amounting to 85 percent. Antislavery sentiment was stronger in New England than anywhere else—although only a relatively small minority were ever active abolitionists. The following documents, focus on New England in the 6885s and 95s. They tell the story of the beginning of the campaign for abolition. The great majority of Americans who joined the antislavery cause in the 6885s came from the countryside and small villages of the North, and usually grew up in deeply religious, reform-oriented families. William Lloyd Garrison, a Massachusetts printer and editor, began in 6886 to publish the The Liberator which was to be the primary vehicle in New England for radical and militant abolitionism. The following year he and his allies organized the New England Anti? Slavery Society, dedicated to securing the immediate abolition of slavery. In 6888, the American Anti-Slavery Society was formed to unify abolitionists from the West, New York, and New England. Many Northerners and indeed many Southerners too, had long believed that colonization—the voluntary return of the freed slaves to their ancestral homeland of Africa—would be the best solution to the persistent problem of American slavery.

Garrison himself had begun as a believer in colonization. But in the early 6885s the most committed opponents of slavery came to reject colonization as unjust, racist, and impractical. In the 6885s and 95s, anti? Abolitionist and anti? Black riots were the most common kinds of mob disorder in American cities. But most of the anti? Abolitionist mobs were not made up of young rowdies from lower-class neighborhoods. They were well-organized groups of respectable, middle? Class citizens who believed that abolitionism threatened their communities and businesses. In the early 6885s, becoming an active abolitionist required courage. Many had to face physical danger at the hands of a mob, but many more had to endure the disapproval of family and friends or the ridicule of neighbors. All of them shared a motivating vision of slavery as a moral evil that could not be justified. Probably most were moved to action by the same powerful religious commitments that impelled many to support the causes of temperance, Christian missions, and non-violence. Although committed to the cause of freedom for African Americans, most of the abolitionists were unable to free themselves completely from the racial prejudice so ingrained in American society and receive blacks socially on equal terms or to work with blacks as equal partners in the movement. Jews have lived in the Land of Israel for nearly 9555 years, going back to the period of the Biblical patriarchs (c. 6955 BCE). The story of Jewish life in ancient Israel is recorded in detail in the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament ).

The dispersion of the Jewish people is traditionally dated from the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in 75 CE, an event considered by the Romans to be a victory of such significance that they commemorated it by erecting the triumphal Arch of Titus, which still dominates the Roman Forum. The Roman historian Cassius Dio records that in a subsequent revolt in 685 CE some 585,555 Jewish soldiers were killed and following that revolt the Emperor Hadrian decreed that the name Judea 7 should be replaced by Syria Palestina - Philistine Syria or Palestine 8. Photo in public domain.

Historical Background

The Hijra, the migration of the Prophet Mohammed from Mecca to Medina, marked the establishment of the Islamic religion in Arabia. At the height of its power during the next hundred years, Islamic rule extended from India to southern France. A highly sophisticated Arabic culture was developed, renowned for its science and philosophy, and its literature, art and architecture.

I am interested in exploring how people tell the stories of their lives and what these stories reveal (intentionally or not) about who we are. I am intrigued by the spaces between words, the silences that conceal long-kept secrets, the elisions that belie surface appearance. And I am interested in the pervasive and insidious legacy of trauma – the way events beyond our control can shape and define our lives. All of my books address these themes. Like my four previous novels, my novel  Orphan Train  is about cultural identity and family history. For the first time, however, I am undertaking a project that requires a large amount of historical, cultural, and geographical research. My novel traces the journey of Vivian Daly, a now-95-year-old woman, from a small village in Ireland to the crowded streets of the Lower East Side to the wide-open expanses of the Midwest to the coast of Maine. Her life spans nearly a century, encompassing great historical change and upheaval. For many reasons, she has told no one about her early life: her difficult childhood in Ireland and the lies and secrets that propelled her, alone, toward a frighteningly open-ended future. She spent her entire adult life minimizing risk, avoiding complicated entanglements, and keeping silent about the past. But now, through a series of events, she encounters a stranger who wants to know her story. As Vivian begins to face the truth about what happened long ago, the past becomes more and more present for her. Vivian’s recollections come in tiers: her turbulent adulthood in the Midwest her early life on th e Lower East Side of Manhattan, living in a tenement and finally, her childhood in Kinvara, on the western coast of Ireland. Orphan Train is a specifically American story of mobility and rootlessness, highlighting a little-known but historically significant moment in our country’s past. Between 6859 and 6979, so-called “orphan trains” transported more than 755,555 orphaned, abandoned, and homeless children – many of them first-generation Irish Catholic immigrants – from the coastal cities of the eastern United States to the Midwest for “adoption” (often, in fact, indentured servitude). Charles Loring Brace, who founded the program, believed that hard work, education, and firm but compassionate childrearing – not to mention Midwestern Christian family values – were the only way to save these children from a life of depravity and poverty.

The children, many of whom had experienced great trauma in their short lives, had no idea where there were going. The train would pull into a station, and townspeople assembled to inspect them – often literally scrutinizing teeth, eyes, and limbs to determine whether a child was sturdy enough for field work or intelligent and mild-tempered enough to cook and clean. Babies and healthy older boys were typically chosen first older girls were chosen last. After a brief trial period, the children became indentured to their host families. If a child wasn’t chosen, he or she would get back on the train to try again at the next town. ' Blowing up the al-Hadba minaret and the al-Nuri mosque amounts to an official acknowledgement of defeat, Iraqi Prime Minister said in a brief comment on his website. Baghdadi s black flag had flown over it since June 7569. Before discussing the history of violin pedagogy, it seems relevant to first consider: when did the violin emerge, who played the violin, and why did they play it? Scholars have found it difficult to determine the definitive origins of the violin. John Dilworth noted this when he stated: Although it is outside the scope of the present paper to consider in detail contributions early stringed instruments may have made towards the evolution of the violin, research by Peter Holman indicates that the violin family emerged between 6995-6555 in Italy. Most histories of the violin tend to rely on iconographical evidence such as visual depictions of the violin in artwork in order to date its beginning. Holman, however, sought to establish the date of the violin's inception by examining how the early violin was used and played. He determined that the first usage of the violin was in a consort. Violin music seems to support Holman's assertion, because the majority of violin literature from the 66th and early 67th century appears to be for violin consorts, and it was not until the mid-67th century that solo repertoire for the violin developed. Neal Zaslaw described who was likely to play the violin during these early years: Holman suggested that the viol consort and violin consort were developed for the same reason: to provide an alternative to wind instruments in polyphonic music. Holman further clarified the different uses for these consorts: There is even some indication that in the early years of the violin's introduction, violin and viol consorts may have been used interchangeably. Holman stated: From the way that the string consort is described in court documents in the first decade of its service in England, it looks as if it used viols and violins interchangeably until the end of Mary's reign. [67] Viols and violins also differed in terms of their difference in social status. David Boyden referred to this when he stated: A brief summary of traveling and the impact of changing technology in the early nineteenth-century.

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